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Can Neurofeedback Cure Depression?

Updated: Mar 13

As a licensed psychologist who has worked extensively with individuals experiencing depression, I understand the profound impact this condition can have on one's life. In the quest for effective treatments, neurofeedback therapy has emerged as a topic of interest for many of my clients. This brings us to an important question: Can neurofeedback treat depression?


Understanding Depression

Depression is a complex mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, fatigue and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It can significantly affect an individual's daily life, relationships, and physical health. Given its multifaceted nature, treating depression often requires a comprehensive approach.


What is Neurofeedback Therapy?

Neurofeedback therapy, also known as EEG biofeedback, is a treatment approach that directly engages with the brain by providing real-time feedback on its electrical activity. This therapy involves placing electrodes on the patient's scalp to read raw EEG waves which are then separated into different frequency bands—delta, theta, alpha, and beta. The feedback provided during neurofeedback training allows individuals to learn how to self-regulate their brain function, potentially leading to improvements in various conditions.  Research has shown that QEEG-based neurofeedback therapy can effectively reduce anxiety and depression while improving emotion regulation (Hassan Abdian et al., 2021).


The Role of Neurofeedback in Treating Depression


Evidence of Efficacy

Depression is a complex mental health condition that requires a variety of treatment options to address its diverse symptoms. Two major strategies for treating depression are antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, both of which have comparable effectiveness (M. Mel’nikov et al., 2022). However, these treatments have their limitations. Antidepressant medications may cause adverse effects in some patients (M. Mel’nikov et al., 2022), while psychotherapy may not be the preferred choice for all individuals due to factors like stigma, financial constraints, and time commitment (M. Mel’nikov et al., 2022). Moreover, recent studies have shown that real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NFB) could be a promising alternative approach in the treatment of depression by targeting specific brain structures associated with emotion regulation (M. Mel’nikov et al., 2022).


Neurofeedback and Neuroplasticity

Neurofeedback therapy, a form of behavioral therapy, aims to enhance neuroplasticity through operant conditioning by training and conditioning the brain with feedback from its electrical waves. Neuroplasticity, the brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections, is crucial for treating depression. Research by Liu et al. (2017) emphasizes the role of neuroplasticity in depression, highlighting its impact from the hippocampus to the prefrontal cortex. This adaptive capacity of the brain holds significance in understanding and addressing major depressive disorder (MDD), a condition affecting millions worldwide (Iris Dalhuisen et al., 2020). A study by Natasha Ahrweiler et al. (2022) demonstrated that depressed adolescents who underwent a neurofeedback protocol targeting emotional regulation and self-processing circuitry showed increased activity in self-referential and visual areas during the neurofeedback process. Additionally, they exhibited increased activation of emotional regulation and cross-modal areas during a self-recognition task, indicating short-term neurobiological changes associated with reduced symptom severity among depressed adolescents. These findings underscore the promising role of neurofeedback therapy in alleviating depressive symptoms, potentially offering an alternative or complementary approach alongside traditional treatments.


Is Neurofeedback a Cure?

When discussing the possibility of curing depression with neurofeedback, it's essential to understand the distinction between cure and treatment. Currently, there is no definitive cure for depression; however, many treatments, including neurofeedback, can effectively manage and alleviate symptoms. It's also important to recognize that depression is influenced by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Therefore, a treatment that significantly benefits one individual may not have the same impact on another.


Neurofeedback therapy is considered to have minimal adverse effects, making it an attractive option for those who are concerned about the side effects of pharmacological interventions (Mel’nikov et al., 2022). Furthermore, studies have shown that real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NFB) targeting specific brain structures has resulted in reductions in depression symptoms (Mel’nikov et al., 2022). These findings suggest that neurofeedback therapy holds promise as an effective and well-tolerated intervention for individuals with mild and moderate depression.


Integrating Neurofeedback into Treatment Plans

For those considering neurofeedback for depression, it's important to view it as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. This plan may also include medication, psychotherapy, lifestyle changes, and other interventions tailored to the individual's needs. However, there is growing interest in alternative treatments such as neurofeedback therapy due to patient preferences for self-help approaches that can enhance self-efficacy, reduce stigmatization, and exhibit minimal adverse effects (M. Mel’nikov et al., 2022). In a pilot study comparing real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NFB) with cognitive behavioral therapy for mild and moderate depression, it was found that neurofeedback training was associated with continuous improvement in self-regulation skills without plateau (M. Mel’nikov et al., 2022). A holistic approach, combining neurofeedback with other treatments, can offer the best chance for managing depression effectively.


Considerations and Recommendations

If you're exploring neurofeedback therapy for depression, here are some steps to consider:

  • Consult with a Healthcare Professional: Speak with a licensed therapist or healthcare provider experienced in both depression and neurofeedback to assess whether this treatment is suitable for you.

  • Set Realistic Expectations: Understand that neurofeedback is a tool for symptom management, not a cure. It may take several sessions to notice improvements.

  • Commitment to Treatment: Neurofeedback requires a series of sessions and a commitment to the process. Patience and consistency are key.


While neurofeedback therapy offers a promising avenue for managing depression, it should not be viewed as a standalone cure. Its potential to improve depressive symptoms, particularly when integrated into a comprehensive treatment plan, makes it a valuable option worth considering. As we continue to advance our understanding of neurofeedback and its impact on depression, it remains a beacon of hope for many seeking relief from this debilitating condition.


Remember, the journey to overcoming depression is personal and multifaceted. Exploring a range of treatments, including neurofeedback, can be an essential part of finding the right combination of therapies that work for you.

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